Blog | Amaral Farm

When to Plant Dutch Iris Bulbs (Iris Hollandica)

With its striking colors and elegant form, the radiant Dutch Iris has long been a favorite among gardening enthusiasts. Like many flowers, the secret to its breathtaking blooms is timely and proper planting. This guide will walk you through everything you need to know to ensure your Dutch Iris bulbs thrive.

Start with a Better Bulb

Flowers are nature’s art, culminating in patience, care, and understanding of the life beneath the soil. There’s the humble bulb before the vibrant petals and the intoxicating aroma. The journey of a magnificent garden begins not with the first sign of green but with choosing the correct bulb. Here’s how to ensure you’re giving your spring garden the best start possible.

Characteristics of a Healthy Bulb

The heart of your future flower is the bulb you plant. But what distinguishes a healthy bulb from a subpar one?

Appearance: A healthy bulb should feel robust and firm, not soft or squishy. Avoid bulbs with visible signs of rot, mold, or discoloration.

Texture: The outer skin or tunic should be intact, protecting the bulb inside. It’s like a protective coat shielding from diseases and pests.

Weight: Teardrop-shaped bulbs should feel relatively heavy for their size. Lightweight or shriveled fresh bulbs often indicate dehydration or poor storage conditions.

Odor: While a bulb’s smell isn’t its most prominent feature, a sour or rotten scent is a definite red flag.

Where and How to Purchase

Knowing what to look for in a bulb is half the battle. The next step is understanding where to find these prime contenders.

Local Nurseries: Often, local nurseries offer a selection of bulbs suited to the region’s climate. Their staff can be invaluable sources of advice and tips tailored to local gardening challenges.

Online Stores: The digital age has enabled access to a global variety of bulbs. If you’re purchasing online, make sure to select reputable sellers. Look for reviews, guarantees, and clear descriptions of the bulbs.

Gardening Shows or Expos: These events often have stalls dedicated to bulb sales. It’s a great place to see various options and get expert advice.

Direct from Growers: If you live close to a bulb-growing region, consider purchasing directly from growers. This ensures freshness and often offers a wider variety to choose from.

Disease-free Promise

Beginning with a healthy bulb isn’t just about aesthetics or immediate growth; it’s also about ensuring your plant’s long-term, disease-free life.

Why it Matters: Plant diseases can not only affect the individual bulb but can also spread to other plants in your garden. A minor issue with one plant can quickly escalate into a major garden problem.

Certifications: Some sellers offer disease-free certifications for their bulbs. This means the bulbs have been tested and found free of common pathogens. Look for these assurances when purchasing.

Inspecting Before Planting: Even if you’ve selected the best bulbs, always inspect them one last time before planting. Check for any signs of mold, rot, or pests.

Proper Storage: If you’re not planting immediately after purchasing, ensure bulbs are stored in a cool, dry place. Avoid sealing bulbs in plastic bags; use mesh or paper bags with holes to allow for ventilation.

Lavender irises

Plan for Success

Every gardener dreams of a lush, thriving garden, beaming with life and color. But like every dream, realizing it requires careful planning and knowledge. It’s not just about watering and waiting; it’s about understanding the needs of your plants and their environment. Dive deep into these three pivotal factors to ensure your garden flourishes.


Sunlight is the lifeblood of most plants. However, just like us, different plants have different sunbathing preferences.

Full Sun Plants: These are the sun-lovers. They crave 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight each day. Often, their labels might specify them as ‘full sun’ plants. Examples include roses, sunflowers, and most vegetable plants.

Partial Sun/Shade Plants: These fall planting trees prefer 3 to 6 hours of sunlight daily, usually in the cooler hours of the morning or late afternoon. Some perennials, like foxgloves and astilbes, fall under this category.

Full Shade Plants: Don’t mistake this for ‘no sun’. These plants need less direct sunlight, typically 3 hours or less, and can thrive in dappled sunlight. Ferns and hostas are classic examples.

Tip: Observe your garden at different times of the day to identify sunny and shaded areas. Rotate plants if necessary to ensure they get their desired light exposure.

Hardiness Zone

The success of many plants, particularly perennials, is intertwined with the region’s climate. This is where understanding hardiness zones comes in handy.

What is a Hardiness Zone? In essence, a hardiness zone is a geographical area defined by its average lowest winter temperature. Each zone represents a temperature range. Knowing your zone helps predict which plants can thrive in your winter conditions.

Finding Your Zone: The USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map is an excellent resource for US gardeners. Just input your zip code, and voila!

Selecting Plants: Once you’ve identified your zone, choose plants labeled for that zone or a broader range, including your zone. For instance, if you live in zone 6, plants labeled 4-8 would be a good fit.

Tip: Local variations like wind exposure or soil quality can affect plant survival even within zones. Always consider microclimates and other unique garden conditions.

Soil Conditions

Soil is more than just dirt; it’s the nurturing ground from which plants sustain.

Types of Soil: From sandy to clayey, loamy to peaty, understanding your soil type is fundamental. Each type has its drainage properties, with loamy, well-drained soil often being the gardener’s favorite due to its balanced texture.

pH Level: The pH level of soil determines its acidity or alkalinity. While 7 is neutral, most plants prefer slightly acidic soil around 6 to 7.5. You can purchase a pH testing kit to gauge your soil’s acidity.

Improving Soil: You might need to amend your soil based on your soil type and the plants you wish to grow. Compost, peat moss, and sand are common amendments to improve soil texture and fertility.

Tip: Yearly soil tests can provide insights into nutrient levels and help you adjust fertilization accordingly.

Iris Planted

Where to Plant Dutch Iris

The Dutch Iris, with its slender, elegant stalks and vibrant, often bi-colored blooms, is a delightful addition to any garden. The allure of this flower isn’t just limited to its beauty. Its versatility means it can find a home in various garden settings. If you’re wondering where these beauties might fit best, here’s a guide to help you decide.

Perennial Gardens

Perennial gardens are beds dedicated to plants that return year after year. Dutch Irises can add a splash of color between early spring blooms and summer perennials.

Note: When incorporating Dutch Iris into a perennial garden, ensure they’re placed where they can enjoy full sun. They are a fantastic transition between early spring bloomers and the robust summer months. Their slender stalks can add vertical interest, and their vibrant colors can break up green foliage-heavy areas.


Dutch Irises are excellent candidates for container gardening for those with limited space or who prefer a mobile gardening approach.

Note: Choose a well-draining potting mix and containers with adequate drainage holes. These irises can be the container’s star or mixed with other plants with similar sunlight and water needs. Given their height, they make a stunning centerpiece in mixed container plantings.

Cutting Gardens

If you adore fresh-cut flowers in your home, consider planting Dutch Iris in a cutting garden. They have strong, long stems and vibrant blooms, making them perfect for vases.

Note: Plant them in rows so they’re easier to cut and won’t disturb nearby plants. Remember, use sharp scissors when cutting when the buds are just beginning to open. This ensures you get the maximum vase life from each stem.

How to Plant Dutch Iris

The Dutch Iris, a favorite among many gardeners, boasts striking blooms that can elevate the aesthetics of any garden. Yet, their elegance in bloom time is matched only by the attention they require during planting. Properly planting these bulbs is crucial to ensure a healthy growth cycle and vibrant blossoming. Here’s a guide to help you navigate this essential process.

When to Plant

Timing is vital for the Dutch Iris to ensure the bulbs don’t rot in the ground and have enough cool dormancy to trigger growth.

Note: For most regions, the ideal time to plant Dutch Iris bulbs is in the fall, several weeks before the first hard frost. This gives them ample time to establish roots before winter. If you live in a warmer climate, consider chilling the bulbs in a refrigerator for a few weeks before planting. This mimics the cold dormancy period they require.

Depth and Spacing

Correct depth and spacing are essential to provide the bulbs with the right environment to thrive without overcrowding.

Note: Plant the bulbs around 4 to 5 inches deep, with the pointed end facing upwards. As for spacing, place them about 3 inches apart. This gives enough room to grow bulbs without competing for nutrients and water. Proper depth protects them from surface temperature fluctuations, while correct spacing promotes healthy growth.

Planting Tips

To maximize your success rate, consider the following when planting:

Soil Preparation: Dutch Iris prefers well-draining soil. Enrich your planting site with organic matter like compost to improve soil texture and nutrient content.

Watering: After planting, water the bulbs well to help them establish roots. However, avoid over-watering, as this can lead to rot.

Location: Choose a site with full sun or partial shade. These bulbs thrive with plenty of sunlight but can also tolerate some afternoon shade.

Mulching: After the ground freezes, consider adding a layer of mulch to protect the bulbs from temperature fluctuations. This also helps retain soil moisture.

Note: Remember to mark or label the spot where you plant your Dutch Iris bulbs. This will prevent accidental digging or disturbance during their dormant phase and remind you where to expect beautiful blooms in the spring!

What to Expect

In regions with milder temperatures, the Dutch iris often begins to showcase its foliage in the late autumn or the onset of winter. Subsequently, these rabbit-resistant plants burst into full bloom as spring rolls in. Conversely, the plant remains dormant in chillier locales during the colder months, with the foliage debuting only in spring.

You’re welcome to snip off the flower stems to create stunning bouquets. Just ensure you leave the foliage intact, as it is vital in nourishing the plant for the subsequent blooming season.

Iris Hollandica

Caring for the Bronze Beauty After They Bloom

The Dutch Iris, known for its enchanting blossoms, is a gardeners’ treat. But the care for these beauties doesn’t end once their petals have unfurled and they’ve put on their annual show. Proper post-bloom care ensures a robust performance in the subsequent seasons.

Dutch Iris blossom around May and June. Growing between 18 to 22 inches in height, these rodent and deer-resistant plants feature elongated leaves. To ensure healthy bulb growth and multiplication for the upcoming years, it’s essential to let the leaves naturally wither post-bloom, as this prolongs the photosynthesis process. After the leaves have completely dried out, you can gather and dispose of them.

Post-Bloom Nourishment

The period immediately after blooming is crucial for bulb rejuvenation. As the flowers fade, allowing the plant to photosynthesize and store energy for the next season is essential.

Avoid premature trimming: Leave the foliage intact until it turns yellow and starts to wilt. This ensures that the plant gathers enough energy for the subsequent bloom season.

Fertilize sparingly: A balanced, slow-release bulb fertilizer can be applied once the flowers have faded to nourish the bulbs for the following year.

Watering and Soil Care

Even after the flowers fade, it’s vital to maintain the right soil moisture levels.

Consistent watering: Keep the soil evenly moist, but be careful not to overwater. Overly saturated soil can cause bulb rot.

Maintain good drainage: Ensure the soil around the iris remains well-draining to prevent waterlogging.

Disease and Pest Check

Post-bloom is an excellent time to inspect your plants for any signs of diseases or pests.

Regularly inspect: Check the foliage for any signs of discoloration, spots, or pests.

Treat promptly: If you notice any issues, treating them immediately is best to prevent further damage or spread.

Preparing for Dormancy

As the colder months approach, the Dutch Iris prepares for its dormant phase.

Trim back: Once the foliage has turned leaves yellow and withered, you can trim it back to the ground level.

Mulching: In colder regions, a light layer of mulch can help Dutch Iris grow by protecting the bulbs from freezing temperatures.

when to plant dutch iris bulbs


How many Dutch iris bulbs to plant together?

For every square foot, approximately nine bulbs are required. To calculate the square footage, multiply the length of the planting area by its breadth. Grouping in odd numbers often creates a more natural and aesthetically pleasing arrangement.

Should I soak Dutch iris bulbs before planting?

While some gardeners believe in soaking bulbs to jump-start the rooting process, it’s not necessary for Dutch irises. If the bulbs are dry or parched, you can soak them for a few hours before planting. However, be careful not to submerge them for too long, as prolonged soaking can lead to rot. If your bulbs are fresh and firm, you can plant them directly without soaking.

How long does Dutch iris take to grow?

After planting in the fall, Dutch iris bulbs will spend the winter months establishing roots. Come spring, you can expect to see the first shoots. The actual time from planting to flowering can vary based on local climate conditions and the exact planting time, but typically, Dutch irises bloom in late spring to early wet summers. From the appearance of the first shoots, it usually takes a few weeks until you see the full, vibrant blossoms.

How long do Dutch iris bulbs last?

Dutch iris bulbs can last several years in the ground in suitable conditions. After the flowers have bloomed and died back, the plant will gather energy for the next season. Over time, however, the plant’s vigor may diminish, leading to fewer or smaller flowers. To maintain a vibrant display, replacing bulbs every 3 to 4 years is a good practice. Another tip is to divide and replant bulb clumps if they become too dense, which can rejuvenate the growth and flowering of the plants.

Final Words

Gardening is a journey of patience, learning, and immense satisfaction. With its dazzling blooms, the Dutch Iris is a testament to the beauty that awaits those who invest time and love into their gardens. Embrace the process, learn from each season, and let every bloom be a reward for your efforts.

Happy gardening!

How to Plant Hyacinth Bulbs

Hyacinths, with their rich colors and intoxicating fragrance, have been captivating gardeners and flower enthusiasts for centuries. Native to the eastern Mediterranean region, they have found their way into gardens worldwide. This guide delves deep into the world of hyacinths, offering insights into their types, care, and common problems, ensuring your gardening endeavor blooms successfully.

About Hyacinth Flowers

The hyacinth, known by several names including the common hyacinth, Dutch hyacinth, grape hyacinth, and garden hyacinth, is botanically labeled as Hyacinthus orientalis. Originally, this captivating hyacinths bloom was classified under its own family, Hyacinthaceae. However, over time, botanists have repositioned it under the Asparagaceae family. As a perennial bulb, the hyacinth promises a delightful return each year, gracefully rising to a height of 6-12 inches and spreading out to a width of 3-6 inches.

One of the hyacinth’s most captivating features is its vast color palette. In the spring, which is its prime bloom time, gardens can be adorned with hyacinths in hues of white, blue, purple, pink, and even red. These vibrant colors are not only a visual treat but can often carry deeper symbolic meanings; for instance, blue hyacinths are often associated with constancy, while red or pink hyacinths can symbolize playfulness.

Originating from Europe and parts of Asia, hyacinth flower has thrived in a range of conditions but prefers full to partial sun exposure. While it demands well-drained soil, the hyacinth isn’t overly picky about soil pH, growing best in neutral to slightly acidic environments. Gardeners in USDA hardiness zones 4 through 8 will find the most success with these spring bulbs.

However, as beautiful and enticing as they are, one must exercise caution. Both humans and pets should avoid ingesting any part of the hyacinth plant, as it carries toxic properties. This blend of beauty and danger adds another layer of meaning to the hyacinth, reminding us of the delicate balance of nature.

Types of Hyacinth Flowers

Each of these hyacinth varieties offers its own unique charm and beauty, making them a valuable addition to gardens and floral arrangements alike. Whether you’re drawn to the deep intensity of Hollyhock and Woodstock or the gentle allure of Pink Pearl and Top White, there’s a hyacinth out there to capture your heart.


The Hollyhock hyacinth variety showcases an allure that’s hard to resist. With its dark purple, almost ebony hues, these flowers add depth and sophistication to any garden space. Their blossoms, densely packed and intense in color, can evoke feelings of mystery and enchantment. Ideal for creating a focal point in your garden, the Hollyhock variety contrasts beautifully with lighter-colored blooms and foliage.


Woodstock hyacinths are a tribute to the beauty of deep magenta. These flowers, with their rich and resonating color, stand out in any setting. The name itself, reminiscent of the famous Woodstock festival, might make one think of peace, love, and vibrant music, encapsulating the spirit of this beautiful flower. Its sturdy stems and tightly packed florets make it a popular choice among gardeners looking for both aesthetics and resilience.

Pink Pearl

As its name suggests, Pink Pearl is the epitome of delicate beauty. This hyacinth variety displays soft, pastel pink blossoms that evoke feelings of romance and serenity. The gentle hue of Pink Pearl is perfect for a calm corner in your garden or to be paired with other soft-colored blooms. Their subtle fragrance complements their visual appeal, making them a favorite for indoor arrangements as well.

Blue Jacket

Offering a rich blue hue with hints of purple, the Blue Jacket hyacinth is a visual delight. These flowers can remind one of a clear evening sky just as twilight sets in. Their striking color is enhanced by their highly fragrant nature, making them a sought-after variety for both gardens and floral bouquets. When planted en masse, Blue Jacket hyacinths can create a sea of blue, captivating anyone who comes across them.

Top White

Simplicity and elegance are the hallmarks of the Top White hyacinth. This variety is characterized by its pristine, snow-white blossoms that can illuminate any garden space. Whether used as a standalone feature or paired with more vibrant blooms for contrast, Top White hyacinths never fail to make a statement. Their subtle fragrance and pure appearance make them a popular choice for weddings and other ceremonial occasions.

Hyacinth Care

grape hyacinth flowers

Proper care for hyacinths is a mix of the right environment, water, and nutrients. When these elements are balanced, you’re rewarded with vibrant, fragrant blooms that can uplift any garden space or indoor setting.


Planting hyacinths correctly sets the foundation for a beautiful bloom in the spring. It’s ideal to plant them in the fall, a few weeks before the first frost. This allows the spring blooming bulbs to establish roots before the winter. Dig a hole about 4-6 inches deep, place the bulb with the pointed end facing upwards, and cover it with soil. Ensure they’re spaced about 3 inches apart to give them room to grow.


Hyacinths thrive in areas that receive full to partial sun. Ideally, the location you choose should provide at least 6 hours of sunlight daily. While they can manage in partial shade, too much shade can lead to elongated growth and fewer blooms. If you’re growing hyacinths indoors, place them near a window where they can receive ample sunlight.


The soil for hyacinths should be moist but well-drained. They prefer soil that’s rich in organic matter, so you might want to amend your garden soil with compost or rotted manure. A pH level that’s neutral to slightly acidic is ideal for these bulbs. Ensure that the soil isn’t compacted, as this can hinder root growth and water drainage.


While hyacinths need regular watering, especially in their growing phase, it’s crucial to avoid waterlogging. Over-watering or letting the bulbs sit in stagnant water can lead to bulb rot. During the active growth period, keep the soil consistently moist but not soggy. Once they’ve flowered, you can cut back on watering.

Temperature & Humidity

Hyacinths prefer cooler temperatures, especially during their dormant phase in the winter. Ideally, they thrive in temperatures between 45-60°F. While they can handle the morning dew and a bit of humidity, it’s important to ensure that their location is well-ventilated and doesn’t remain damp for extended periods, as this can lead to fungal diseases.


For a boost in growth and flower production, fertilize your hyacinths with a balanced, slow-release bulb food or bone meal. Apply the fertilizer at the time of planting and then again when the shoots start to appear in the spring. Avoid over-fertilizing, as this can lead to lush foliage but fewer blooms.

Forcing and Handling Hyacinth Bulbs

Forcing hyacinth bulbs allows you to enjoy their blossoms even out of their usual spring season, making it possible to have their vibrant blooms and delightful fragrance indoors during winter. Start by choosing healthy bulbs without signs of damage or disease. Place them in a paper bag in the refrigerator for about 12-14 weeks to simulate the cold period they’d experience in nature. Ensure they’re away from ripening fruit, which releases ethylene gas that can harm the bulbs.

After the chilling period, plant the bulbs in pots with well-draining soil, leaving the tip of the bulb exposed. Place the pot in a cool, dark location for about two weeks, allowing roots to develop. Then, move the pot to a warmer, well-lit area. In a few weeks, you’ll see the buds emerge, signaling a successful forcing process.


Pruning hyacinths helps maintain their vigor and appearance. Once the flowers have faded post-bloom, snip off the spent flower stalk. This ensures that the plant doesn’t waste energy on seed production and instead focuses on nourishing the bulb for the next year.

However, it’s essential to leave the leaves untouched. They play a vital role in photosynthesis, absorbing sunlight and strengthening the bulb for the next growth cycle. As the leaves yellow and die back, you can then gently remove them.

Propagating Hyacinth

Hyacinths can be propagated through bulb offsets, often called “daughter” bulbs. After the plant has finished flowering and the foliage has died back, gently unearth the bulb. You’ll notice smaller bulbs attached to the main bulb. Detach these carefully and plant them separately.

It may take a couple of years for these daughter bulbs to mature and flower, but with proper care, they will eventually grow into robust hyacinth plants of their own, allowing you to expand your collection or share with fellow gardening enthusiasts.

How to Grow Hyacinth Flowers from Seed

Growing hyacinths from seeds is a longer and more challenging process compared to bulb propagation, but it can be a rewarding experience. Once the flowers fade, let the seed pods mature on the plant. Harvest the pods once they’ve dried, then extract and store the seeds in a cool, dry place.

To plant, sow the seeds in a well-draining mix and lightly cover them with soil. Place the container in a cool location. Germination can be erratic, taking several weeks to months. Seed-grown hyacinths might also take several years before they mature enough to bloom, requiring patience and care.

Potting and Repotting Hyacinths Perennials

Hyacinths can thrive in pots, making them suitable for patios, balconies, or indoor displays. Choose a pot with adequate drainage holes and fill it with a well-draining potting mix. When planting, ensure the bulb’s tip is slightly above the soil surface. Water moderately.

Repotting is necessary when the bulbs outgrow their current container or if the soil becomes exhausted. It’s best done after the foliage has died back. Gently remove the bulb, select a larger pot, and transplant using fresh potting mix.


In colder regions where temperatures drop significantly, overwintering hyacinth bulbs is crucial. After the plant has finished its bloom cycle and leaves have yellowed, you can dig up the bulbs. Clean off any soil and let them dry for a few days.

Store the bulbs in a mesh bag or paper bag filled with dry peat moss or sand. Place the bag in a cool, dark, and dry location, like a basement or garage, ensuring temperatures remain above freezing but below 50°F. Replant them in the fall.

Common Pests & Plant Diseases

Hyacinths, like many plants, can be affected by pests and diseases. Common pests include aphids, slugs, and snails, which can be controlled using insecticidal soap or natural predators. Diseases such as mold, fungal rot, and mosaic virus can strike if bulbs are planted in poorly draining soil or waterlogged conditions.

Ensure good hygiene practices like using clean pots and fresh soil when planting. Proper spacing and avoiding overhead watering can prevent many diseases. If a bulb shows signs of rot or mold, it’s best to discard it to protect the surrounding plants.

How to Get Hyacinth to Bloom

A blooming hyacinth is a gardener’s reward for the care they’ve provided. Ensuring they bloom year after year requires some attention. First, a cold period is vital. If the bulbs don’t experience cold temperatures during winter, consider chilling them in the refrigerator for several weeks before planting.

Feed your hyacinths with a balanced fertilizer in the early spring, just as shoots appear. This will provide them with the essential nutrients they need for flowering. Also, ensure they’re planted in a location with adequate sunlight, as insufficient light can hinder bloom production.

Common Problems With Hyacinth

how to plant hyacinth bulbs

Addressing these common problems ensures that your hyacinths continue to grow healthy and vibrant, becoming a captivating feature in your garden year after year.

Spotted Foliage

One of the common issues that hyacinth growers encounter is spotted foliage. This problem can be attributed to a fungal disease called “Botrytis” or “gray mold.” High humidity or prolonged damp conditions often exacerbate this issue. Infected leaves will display brown or tan spots, often with a yellow halo. If left untreated, the fungus can spread and affect the flowers too.

To manage this problem, ensure proper spacing between plants to improve air circulation. Always water at the base of the plant and avoid overhead watering that leaves foliage wet for extended periods. Infected leaves should be pruned and disposed of away from the garden. Fungicides can be applied as a preventative measure during wet seasons.

Broken, Streaked Petals

Broken or streaked petals can be indicative of a viral infection, often the “Hyacinth Mosaic Virus.” This virus doesn’t usually kill the plant but can reduce its vigor and aesthetic appeal. Aphids primarily transmit it as they feed from one plant to another, transferring the virus in the process.

To prevent this issue, control aphid populations using insecticidal soaps or neem oil. Ensure that any gardening tools used are clean to avoid cross-contamination. If a plant is suspected of having a viral infection, it’s best to remove and destroy it to prevent the virus from spreading to healthy plants.

Small Flowers

Small flowers in hyacinths can result from a variety of factors. One of the main causes is insufficient energy in the bulb, which might be due to premature foliage removal in the previous season. Remember, the leaves photosynthesize and store energy for the next blooming cycle, so they should not be cut back until they naturally yellow and wither.

Another reason could be overcrowded bulbs. Over time, hyacinth bulbs can multiply underground, competing for nutrients and space. If you notice that your bulbs are producing smaller flowers, it might be time to dig them up, separate them, and replant them with more space. Lastly, inadequate sunlight or poor soil nutrition can also lead to smaller blooms. Ensure hyacinths receive at least 6 hours of sunlight daily and consider a balanced fertilizer application in the early spring.


How do you plant hyacinth bulbs from pots?

Planting hyacinth bulbs from pots involves carefully extracting the bulb without damaging its roots. First, gently remove the soil around the bulb until you can safely lift it out. If you’re transitioning from pot to garden, dig a hole in a well-draining spot about 4-6 inches deep, place the bulb with the pointed end upwards, and then cover with soil. If you’re moving to a new pot, ensure it has good drainage and is filled with a suitable potting mix.

When should I plant hyacinth bulbs?

Hyacinth bulbs are best planted in the fall, a few weeks before the first hard frost. This timing allows them to establish roots before winter. In most regions, this equates to September or October. However, the specific time can vary based on your local climate and the onset of cold temperatures.

How do hyacinth and grape hyacinth differ from one another?

While hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum) may appear somewhat alike, they belong to different species. The former boasts broad, upright petals, whereas the latter presents petite, bell-like blooms. Typically, grape hyacinths are integrated into lawns or sown in expansive groups, a practice not often associated with regular hyacinths. Additionally, grape hyacinths predominantly display a deep purple-blue hue, contrasting with the varied color palette of traditional hyacinths.

How long does it take to plant hyacinth bulbs?

The act of planting hyacinth bulbs doesn’t take long—a few minutes per bulb if you have prepped your soil or potting mix. The essential part is ensuring you plant them at the right depth and space them appropriately. If you’re planting multiple bulbs in a garden bed or pot, factor in a little extra time for spacing and soil preparation.

Do hyacinth bulbs multiply?

Yes, hyacinth bulbs do multiply. Over time, the main bulb, or “mother” bulb, will produce smaller “daughter” bulbs or offsets around its base. These daughter bulbs can be separated and replanted to produce new hyacinth plants. It’s a natural way the plant ensures its propagation, and it’s also a way for gardeners to increase their hyacinth collection.

Final Words

Embracing the world of hyacinths is a fragrant journey filled with vibrant colors and garden joy. By following this guide, both novice and seasoned gardeners can relish the beauty and aroma of these delightful flowers.

Happy Gardening!

Guide to Planning, Preparing, Planting, and Growing Peony Bulbs

Peonies are a garden favorite and one of the most beautiful and beloved perennial plants. Their large blooms in shades of white, pink, red, and even yellow make wonderful additions to any landscape. Peony bulbs can be planted in the fall for spring blooming or early spring for summer flowering.

This blog post will cover everything you need to know about planting, growing, and caring for peony bulbs. We’ll start with how to choose the right peony variety for your garden, then move on to how to prepare and plant your bulbs. Finally, we’ll touch on some tips and tricks for keeping your peonies healthy over time.

Basics of Peonies

Peonies are a popular perennial plant in Paeonia, the only genus in the family Paeoniaceae. Known for their large, often fragrant flowers, peonies are a staple of many gardens due to their hardiness and long lifespan, some living for a century or more. Their lush blooms, which typically appear in late spring and early summer, add a stunning and sophisticated touch to any landscape. Peonies come in various colors, including white, pink, red, and yellow, which can be single, semi-double, or double-flowered, depending on the variety.

While peonies are quite resilient once established, they require a certain level of care, particularly during their initial planting phase. It’s essential to understand the needs of these plants and provide the optimal growing conditions to ensure their health and encourage abundant blooming. This guide will cover everything you need to know about planning, preparing, planting, and growing peony bulbs.

Types and Variations of Peonies

Peonies come in three main types: herbaceous, tree, and intersectional (also known as Itoh peonies). Herbaceous peonies die back to the ground each fall and reemerge in the spring. They are most common in home gardens due to their hardiness and the vast range of colors and flower forms available.

Tree peonies, contrary to their name, are not actually trees but are woody-stemmed shrub that loses its leaves but retains their structure year-round. They offer large, exquisite flowers and are generally more heat tolerant than herbaceous types.

Intersectional peonies are a hybrid of the tree and herbaceous peonies, displaying the best qualities of both with their sturdy, tree-like stems and lush herbaceous flowers that come in a range of colors.

bouquet of peony flowers on table
Photo by Marta Dzedyshko on

Start with a Better Plant

Starting with a healthy and high-quality peony plant can greatly influence the success of your growing endeavor. When you buy peony plants, choose a reputable nursery or garden center that offers quality bare-root peony tubers.

These are the dormant peony root structures, usually sold in the fall. Ensure that the tuber has at least 3 to 5 eyes (small, red-colored peony buds from where the new stems grow) and that the peony roots are firm and not mushy or rotten.

While it may be tempting to buy peonies in bloom from a nursery for an instant garden effect, remember that these plants can take some time to establish in a new location, and the stress of transplanting can affect their health and blooming the following year. Thus, starting with a dormant, bare-root peony often offers a better chance for long-term success.

Plan for Success

When planning where to plant your peonies, keep in mind that they require full sun with at least 6 hours of sunlight per day. Choose an area in your garden that is well-drained and not prone to standing water. Peonies don’t like wet feet, so plant them in an elevated spot if your yard is prone to waterlogging.

Sun and Shade

Peonies thrive in locations with full sun exposure for at least six hours a day. While they can tolerate partial shade, less sunlight can lead to fewer blooms and weaker stems. However, in areas with particularly hot summers, some afternoon shade can help protect peonies from intense heat and prolong their bloom time.

Growing Season

Peonies have a relatively long growing season, often early blooming peonies in early spring when the first shoots emerge from the ground and ending in late fall when the foliage dies back. The actual bloom time is typically in late spring or early summer and lasts several weeks. The specific timing can vary depending on the region’s variety and climate.

person showing blooming peonies in hand against dark background
Photo by Marta Dzedyshko on


Peonies are hardy plants that can be grown in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 8. They need a period of winter chilling (temperatures below 40°F) for bud formation. Therefore, they may not perform as well in regions with mild winters or extremely hot summer temperatures.


Peonies prefer well-draining soil rich in organic matter. Heavy clay or sandy soils can be improved by incorporating compost or well-rotted manure at planting time. The ideal soil pH for peonies is neutral to slightly alkaline, between 6.5 and 7.5.

When to Plant

The best time to plant peony bulbs is in the fall, typically around September and October, before the first hard frost. This gives the plant enough time to establish its root system before winter.

How to Plant Peonies

To plant peonies, dig a hole wide and deep enough to comfortably accommodate the root system. The hole should be around 12-18 inches in depth and width. Place the tuber in the hole with the eyes (or buds) facing upwards, and make sure the topmost bud is no more than 2 inches below the soil surface. Cover the tuber with soil, firming it gently around the plant. Water well and apply a thin layer of mulch to help conserve moisture and deter weeds.

Planting Tips for Peonies

When planting peonies, it’s essential to avoid planting them too deep. If the buds are more than 2 inches below the soil surface, it can prevent the plant from blooming. Space plants about 3-4 feet apart to allow for good air circulation and prevent fungal diseases. Peonies can take a few years to settle and bloom, so patience is key. Once they’re established, however, they can bloom profusely for many years with minimal care.

Where to Plant Peonies

Peonies are a versatile addition to any landscape and can be used in various planting schemes. They look beautiful in perennial beds or mixed with other spring-blooming flowers. Plant them along a fence line or use them to create attractive borders.

Perennial Gardens

Due to their lush foliage and spectacular blooms, peonies make a beautiful addition to perennial gardens. They mix well with other spring-blooming plants like irises and roses and provide excellent foliage for the rest of the growing season once their blooms have faded.

Hedges and Fence Lines

Peonies can also be used to create striking hedges or to line fences. When planted in a row, their impressive flowers and dense foliage create a compelling visual barrier while adding a touch of elegance.

Foundation Plantings and Shrub Borders

Mature peonies are shrub-like and can be used in foundation plantings or shrub borders. They can help to soften the lines of buildings or fences and create a visually pleasing landscape.

What to Expect from Peonies

Typically, contingent on their type, peony plants grow to a minimum height and width of three feet once fully mature. Consequently, it’s vital to allocate sufficient space for their growth.

Employing a supporting structure around the peonies aids in maintaining the upright position of the blossoms. Either utilize a commercially available peony support or construct a DIY one using wooden strips or steel wire mesh. Installing these supports during early spring before the plants surpass a height of 12 inches.

In the first year after planting, peony growth may be modest as the plants focus on establishing their roots. You may see a few leaves and possibly a peonies bloom or two. By the second or third year, the plants should begin to fill out and produce more stems and peony flowers. After about three to five years, peonies will reach their full size and flowering potential.

It’s worth noting that peonies are long-lived plants. Once established, they can bloom every year for decades, or even a century or more, with minimal care. This makes them a wonderful heirloom plant to pass down through generations.

Caring for Peonies After They Bloom

After peonies finish blooming, you should deadhead any spent flowers to maintain the plant’s appearance and prevent seed formation, which can reduce the plant’s vigor. Continue to water and care for the plants throughout the summer and fall, as this is when they are building reserves for the next year’s growth and blooms.

In the fall, after the foliage has died, cut the plants down to the ground and clear away the debris to prevent diseases or pests from overwintering. You can also add a layer of mulch around the plants for additional winter protection.

How to Landscape With Peonies

When landscaping with peonies, consider their bloom time, plant height, and flower color. These elements can help to create a cohesive and visually pleasing garden design. For example, use peonies to create a stunning theme by planting varieties with similar or complementary flower colors. Or, create a “peony border” with shorter plants in the front and taller ones in the back.

Peonies also work well when paired with other perennials that bloom at the same time or shortly after peonies to provide ongoing color and interest in the garden. Companion plants that work well with peonies include irises, alliums, and early-blooming roses.

Peony Pests and Diseases

Peonies are relatively low-maintenance and are not often bothered by pests. However, they can occasionally be affected by diseases such as peony wilt or botrytis blight, which can cause wilting, discoloration, or a fuzzy mold on the leaves, stems, or buds. Good gardening practices, like providing proper air circulation, avoiding overhead watering, and keeping the garden clean of plant debris, can help prevent these diseases.

In terms of pests, ants are often found on peonies, attracted by the sweet sap on the flower buds. However, they are harmless to the plant. The most significant pest of peonies is probably the Japanese beetle, which can chew on the leaves and flowers. Hand-picking or using a targeted pesticide can help control this pest.


What is a peony bulb?

A peony bulb is not a true bulb; it’s actually a tuber or root structure. When planting, make sure the tuber’s ” eye ” faces up and cover it with soil for best results. To ensure proper growth, it is crucial to plant peonies correctly since they rely on tubers, which are bulb-like structures that store nutrients for yearly regrowth.

Why aren’t my peonies blooming?

Peonies can fail to bloom for a few reasons, including insufficient sunlight, lack of nutrients, or planting too deep. Ensure your peonies are planted in a sunny location, and the buds are no more than 2 inches below the soil surface. A top dressing of compost or a balanced fertilizer in spring can also help boost blooming.

Do peonies need staking?

Some varieties of peonies, especially those with large double flowers, may need staking to keep their heavy blooms from drooping or touching the ground. Many types of peony support are available, or you can make your own using stakes and string.

Do peonies multiply?

Yes, peonies can multiply over time. However, they are slow-growing plants that can take several years to produce additional stems and flowers. If you want to propagate peonies, dividing the tubers in the fall is the most reliable method.

How often should I water my peonies?

Peonies prefer evenly moist soil, but they are relatively drought-tolerant once established. During dry periods, water deeply once a week. Watering in the morning is best to allow the leaves to dry out during the day and prevent fungal diseases.

What are peony plants used for?

Peonies are popular garden plants for their attractive foliage and colorful flowers. Their beautiful blossoms can be used in cut flower arrangements, while the plants make a great addition to any landscape. They look beautiful planted alone or grouped in foundation plantings or shrub borders. When mixed in a perennial flowerbed, peonies can also provide subtle color and texture. Peonies can also be used for their medicinal properties as they contain various compounds that may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects.

Why are peonies expensive?

Peonies are expensive because they take a long time to mature, require a lot of care (especially during their first two years), and there is a high demand for them. Additionally, growing and transporting peony plants can be costly. It takes anywhere from three to five years before the plant reaches full maturity and blooms properly.

Final Words

Peonies are a classic and elegant addition to any garden. They are a garden treasure with their long lifespan, stunning blooms, and low maintenance needs. Establishing these plants may take patience and care, but the rewards are well worth the effort. So, start planning, prepare your garden, and plant some peony bulbs this fall. You’ll be delighted with the results for years to come.

We hope this guide has given you a better understanding of how to landscape with peonies and care for them properly. If you have any questions or want to share your favorite tips, please feel free to comment below! Happy gardening!

Is a Cucumber a Fruit or a Vegetable?

We all love cucumbers; no questions asked! A survey by Statista revealed in the US, a person consumed 8 pounds of cucumbers in 2021, demonstrating the fruit’s popularity. But is a cucumber a fruit or a vegetable?

However, it turns out that this seemingly simple question is surprisingly complex. Depending on how you look at it and what definition of “fruit” or “vegetable” you use, there can be more than one correct answer. Super confusing, right?

This blog will explore the debate over whether cucumbers are fruits or vegetables. We will look at botanical definitions, culinary uses, and more to get to the bottom of this age-old question. So if you’re ready to find out once and for all if cucumbers are fruits or vegetables, keep reading!

Per capita consumption of fresh cucumbers in the United States

Image Courtesy:

What is a Cucumber?

Generally speaking, cucumbers are a vegetable that belongs to the gourd family. They are long and have green skin, often used in salads or as a garnish. Cucumbers are 95% water, it is super helpful in naturally staying hydrated.

The History of Cucumbers

The cultivation of cucumbers is thought to have started in India about 3,000 years ago. The Mediterranean and other regions of Asia were then made known to them.

The Romans introduced cucumber plants to Europe. In England, the cucumber rose to popularity throughout the Victorian era.

Today, cucumbers are grown in many parts of the world, including North America, Africa, and South America.

is a cucumber a fruit or a vegetable

The Botanical Definition: A Cucumber is a Fruit

In terms of botany, a cucumber is regarded as a fruit (categorized as a pepo, a variety of botanical berries). This is because it grows from the plant’s flower and has seeds, regarded as a plant’s reproductive organs.

Botanically speaking, fruits are defined as structures that contain seeds derived from different parts of the flower and have a fleshy layer that develops from the ovary. This distinguishes them from vegetables, typically harvested for their edible parts, and contain no reproductive structures.

The cucumber plant is a flowering plant, which means it bears fruit. Its fruits are the cucumbers we eat, so they are technically fruits.

is a cucumber a fruit or a vegetable

The Culinary Perspective: A Cucumber is a Vegetable

Culinary definitions of fruits and vegetables can vary depending on who you ask. For most people, cucumbers fall into the vegetable category. This is because they are usually served savory dishes instead of sweet ones and are not eaten for sweetness.

In the culinary world, vegetables are typically defined as edible parts of plants that are not fruits or seeds. Examples include potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and cucumbers.

is a cucumber a fruit or a vegetable

The Debate

The confusion over the classification of cucumbers is primarily because the term “fruit” has different meanings in different contexts. In botanical terms, cucumbers are a fruit; in culinary terms, they are a vegetable. Ultimately, the classification of cucumbers depends on the context in which they are being discussed.

The debate over whether cucumbers are a fruit or a vegetable will likely continue. But regardless of how you classify it, there’s no denying that cucumbers are a delicious and nutritious part of any diet!

is a cucumber a fruit or a vegetable

Uses of Cucumbers

I don’t have to tell you about the uses of cucumbers!

Cucumbers are versatile ingredients that can be used in a variety of ways. They are commonly eaten raw in salads, sandwiches, and garnish. Pickling cucumbers is a popular way of preserving them for later use. Pickled cucumbers, also known as “gherkins,” are a popular ingredient in sandwiches and salads.

Cucumbers are also used in cosmetics and skincare products. Cucumber extract is a common ingredient in moisturizers, face masks, and eye creams due to its hydrating properties. Slicing cucumbers and using them on your eyes also reduce puffiness and dark circles around the eyes.

Cucumbers are utilized in medicine. Natural diuretics like cucumber juice might aid in the body’s detoxification process. It is also thought to be anti-inflammatory and helps lessen pain and swelling. Also, some people utilize cucumber juice as an all-natural sunburn treatment. It’s also thought that cucumbers help improve bone health.

Cucumbers are also a popular ingredient in detox diets. They contain a lot of water and have few calories, which can aid in removing toxins from the body. For a set amount of time, some detox regimens recommend only eating cucumbers to help the body get clean.

is a cucumber a fruit or a vegetable

Cucumber Recipes

There is no disputing that cucumbers are a wonderfully healthy food to include in your diet, regardless of whether you consider them a fruit or a vegetable. Compared to most vegetables, cucumber frequently offers a meatier and crunchier texture. Even yet, since the fresh flavor is softer, it can be well-balanced when cooked in savory meals like stews, soups, or stir-fries.

1. Cucumber Salsa: This fresh and flavorful salsa is perfect for summer picnics and BBQs. Simply slice and prepare cucumbers with tomatoes, onions, jalapeños, lime juice, and cilantro. Season to taste with salt and pepper.

2. Cucumber Mint Salad: This refreshing salad is perfect for a light lunch or a side dish. Combine chopped cucumber, mint leaves, feta cheese, and olives. Drizzle with olive oil and vinegar. Season to taste with salt and pepper.

3. Cucumber Gazpacho: This cool and creamy soup is perfect for hot summer days. Puree cucumbers, tomatoes, green peppers, onion, garlic, bread crumbs, olive oil, vinegar, and water in a blender or food processor until smooth. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Serve chilled, topped with diced avocado and sour cream if desired.

4. Cucumber Sandwiches: These easy sandwiches are perfect for tea parties or light lunches. Spread bread with butter or cream cheese, then top with thinly sliced cucumbers (seeds removed if desired) and fresh dill weed. Sprinkle with salt if desired, then cut into small triangles or rectangles.


We hope this article has clarified that the cucumber is technically a fruit. While we may think of it as more of a vegetable because of its taste and texture, the truth is that it fits the definition of being classified as a fruit. The next time you’re in the produce aisle, remember this distinction as you select your cucumbers!

Does Neem Oil Kill Earwigs? A Comprehensive Look

arwigs are pesky insects that can wreak havoc in gardens and even make their way inside homes. Unfortunately, these critters can be a tough nuisance to deal with as they are quite resilient and reproduce quickly. But what if there was an effective solution to this problem? Could neem oil be the answer?

Neem oil originates from the Azadirachta indica tree, which is grown primarily in India but has been exported around the world. It’s derived from the seeds of the tree and contains multiple compounds that have been known to have insecticidal properties when used correctly.

For instance, it contains nimbin, nimbidin, azadirachtin, and salannin which act as a natural pesticides to protect plants and get rid of unwanted pests like earwigs. In this blog post, we’ll take a comprehensive look into whether neem oil is truly an effective deterrent for pesky earwigs.

Read More about Does Neem Oil Kill Earwigs? A Comprehensive Look

Growing Strawberries: When Should You Plant Them?

If you’ve ever wanted to grow strawberries in your garden, then you’re in the right place! In this blog, we’ll go over all the details of when and how to plant your strawberry plants to make sure they grow big delicious berries. We will discuss the few different ways you can grow your strawberries to get that sweet flavor. Also we list a few strawberry varieties that you might consider growing. Last, but certainly not least we will detail out some of the nutritional benefits of strawberries, so hang and read on. I promise it won’t take too long. You will be glad you did.

Why choose to grow Strawberries?

Strawberries are a delicious fruit that can be enjoyed fresh, in jams and jellies, or in pies and other desserts. But before we can get to that point we actually need to plant and take care them so that they will fruit to give you that classic strawberry flavor.

Yes, strawberries are relatively easy to grow, and they can be planted at different times throughout the year, depending on your climate. In warmer climates, you can plant strawberries in late winter or early spring. In cooler climates, it’s best to wait until late spring or early summer. Whether you start with bare root plants or young strawberry plants will also determine how difficult it will be to grow.

Read More about Growing Strawberries: When Should You Plant Them?

When do Daffodils bloom?

Daffodils, famously referred to as either narcissus or jonquils, embody a ray of hope and the promise of rejuvenation.

As the dreary winter vista is enlivened with their vibrant yellow flowers, they stand as a harbinger of the approaching spring season.

However, despite their widespread popularity, garden enthusiasts often ponder over the precise timing of the daffodil bloom and the optimal methods for their cultivation.

This article delves into the intricacies of daffodil blooming, the diversity of daffodil varieties, and offers practical advice for ensuring their flourishing growth.

plant daffodils

When do Daffodils Bloom?

The intricate timing of daffodil blooms, as it so happens, is contingent upon a multitude of factors, including the variety of daffodil and its geographical location.

With regards to a general timeline, the bloom of most daffodils can be expected to unfold between the latter half of February and the beginning of May. 

However, the variation in climates, such as in warmer climates, often results in an earlier period of blooms. Conversely, the cooler regions may see blooms that are delayed in time.

The UK, for instance, usually witnesses the bloom of daffodils from the end of March to the start of April. In contrast, New Zealand experiences the bloom of these beautiful flowers from September to November.

type of daffodil

A Bouquet of Beauty: The Various Forms of Daffodils

The world of daffodils is a kaleidoscope of diversity, each blossom unique in its own way, showcasing a blooming pattern and distinct features.

As the winter draws to a close, and the air is filled with the sweet fragrance of these marvels, it’s time to explore the many faces of this flower.

Starting the parade of bloomers, the Trumpet or Large-cupped daffodils take center stage, flowering as early as March, setting the tone for the daffodil season.

Following close behind are the Small-cupped and Double varieties, which usually make their appearance in late spring (April). The final act is performed by the Poeticus and Narcissus Tazetta, gracing gardens with their presence as late as May or June.

The Trumpet, the most beloved type of daffodil, boasts large, trumpet-shaped blooms, and is available in a spectrum of colors, including yellow, white, pink, and even orange! While the Large-cupped shares similarities with the Trumpet, it boasts larger, cup-shaped blooms, As its name suggests, the Small-cupped

As its name suggests, the Small-cupped has smaller cup-shaped blooms, but it more than makes up for it in variety, available in the same range of colors as the other varieties. The Double, on the other hand, is distinctive due to its double row of petals, again available in a rainbow of colors.

The Poeticus, a rare beauty, is known for its small blooms and sweet fragrance. It is typically white with a pale yellow cup. Meanwhile, the Narcissus Tazetta is a fragrant sensation, with its small, clustered blooms, available in a range of colors, including yellow, orange, pink, and white petals.

multiple blooms

Selecting the Appropriate Daffodil Bulb for Your Garden

For avid gardeners, choosing the ideal daffodil bulbs to cultivate is a task that requires contemplation and astuteness. There are several aspects to consider, from bloom time to the color of the flower.

In the realm of bloom time, daffodils come in an array of choices, with early, mid, and late-season varieties, allowing you to pick the one that will bloom during your preferred time.

Then, there’s the consideration of size and shape. Daffodils offer a vast range of possibilities, from petite, single or double-flowered stems, to grand, large-cupped specimens that can reach towering heights of up to 18 inches. Decide which will complement your garden the best.

Adding to the complexity of the decision-making process, daffodils boast a spectrum of hues, including yellow, white, orange, pink, and bicolored varieties.

It’s crucial to choose the colors that will harmonize with your garden’s overall aesthetic. Finally, the hardiness zone in your area must not be overlooked. Ensure that the bulbs you select are suitable for your region, as some daffodils may not be able to withstand the climate in your area.

In conclusion, selecting the perfect daffodil bulbs requires a well-thought-out approach, considering bloom time, size and shape, color, and regional compatibility.

With careful consideration and attention to detail, you’ll be sure to choose bulbs that will bring vibrant, long-lasting beauty to your garden.

bulbs in the fall

How to Plant Daffodils

For a flourishing garden, planting daffodils is a must-do! Before diving into the task, it’s crucial to select a spot that basks in the sunshine and boasts soil that’s not dense and easily retains water.

As the autumn chill settles in and the first frost approaches, it’s time to put your green thumb to work and get the bulbs planted. The key to successful planting is to ensure that the soil is well-drained.

If you notice that the soil in your garden is heavy or has a clay-like texture, consider mixing in some sand or compost for optimal growing conditions.

Follow these steps to plant your daffodil bulbs and bring a burst of spring color to your garden:

  1. Dig a hole that’s twice the depth of the bulb.
  2. Place the bulb with the pointy end up in the hole.
  3. Fill the hole with soil, tamping down gently to secure the bulb in place.
  4. Give the newly-planted bulb a generous watering to help it settle into its new home.

With a little bit of care and attention, your daffodils will bloom beautifully in no time!

Many daffodils

How Daffodils Bloom

Daffodils, a symbol of renewal and hope, embark on their journey to bloom as winter wanes and spring sets in.

The bulbs, nestled underground, stir to life as they reach out with roots and shoots, yearning for sustenance to fuel their growth.

As temperatures rise, the shoots break free from the earth and stretch towards the sky, eagerly basking in the warmth of the sun.

Their leaves, elongated and slender, shoot up first, offering sustenance to the rest of the plant and ensuring the blooming of its stunning beauty.

When the leaves have reached a critical mass, the stem begins to elongate and the flower buds come into being. And, as the buds mature, the blooming commences, revealing the radiant yellow petals of the daffodil, gracefully encircling the central cup-like structure, the corona.

This process of blooming lasts for several weeks, as the flowers bask in the sun, gradually fading, eventually falling off as the plant redirects its energy towards storing it for the upcoming growing season.

Daffodil bloom times

Caring for the Radiant Beauty of Daffodils and their Flowering Bulbs

Spring is an enchanting time of the year, with its colorful displays of flora and fauna. Among the earliest to grace our gardens with their vibrant presence are the cheerful daffodils.

But, to maintain their glory throughout the season, a little TLC is necessary. Here are some tips to keep your daffodils shining bright.But, to maintain their glory throughout the season, a little TLC is necessary. Here are some tips to keep your daffodils shining bright.

Hydration is key, especially during parched spells. Drench their roots once or twice a week with ample water, avoiding just dampening the leaves. Additionally, give them a gentle misting of water during their blooming phase to keep the petals looking fresh.

Come fall, provide a blanket of mulch to shield the plants from the harsh winter months.

Fertilization is crucial to foster healthy growth and an abundance of blooms. Choose a balanced fertilizer, such as 10-10-10, and apply as directed. For optimal results, fertilize your daffodils every 4 to 6 weeks during the growing phase.

Once the blooms have withered away, let the leaves die back naturally, as they are vital in producing food for the next year’s flowers. Cut the stem just an inch below the bloom and place it in a vase with fresh water, changing the water and recutting the stem as needed.

To maximize the longevity of your daffodils, keep them out of direct sunlight. And, don’t forget the art of deadheading, or removing the spent blooms, as it not only tidies up the plant but also spurs the emergence of new blooms. Simply snip off the flower stalk at the base, being mindful not to damage the leaves.

When the blooms have faded, remove the entire plant from its pot and store it in a cool, dry place until next spring.

Daffodils thrive in sunlight and can flourish in both full sun (at least 6 hours of daily sunlight) and partial shade. With proper care, your daffodils can last for several weeks, spreading happiness with their bright yellow blooms, a welcome sight after a long winter. So, treat them with care and relish their radiance for many seasons to come.

caring for daffodils

Daffodil FAQ

Do Daffodils Spread?

Daffodils spread through rhizomes, which are thickened underground stems that store energy.

Rhizomes enable the plant to rapidly multiply and produce large numbers of offsets, or small plants that develop from the parent plant. This is how daffodils readily naturalize in areas where they are planted.

Are Daffodils Poisonous to Cats?

The deceptively beautiful daffodil plant harbors a dark secret: it is highly toxic to our feline friends. From its petals to its bulbs, every aspect of this plant poses a threat to cats who may ingest it, leading to a range of unpleasant symptoms like vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, and even seizures in severe cases.

A swift call to either a trusted veterinarian or the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center can be the difference between life and death for a feline in peril. Don’t wait – act fast to protect your furry companion.

Are Daffodils Poisonous to Dogs?

Beware pet owners! Those cheerful, yellow daffodils you admire in your home may spell danger for your furry companions. Despite their innocent appearance, these blooms are potent carriers of the toxic substance lycorine, present in every part of the plant.

Lycorine poisoning in dogs can have a catastrophic impact, with symptoms ranging from vomiting and diarrhea to abdominal pain, drooling, and weakness. Even the smallest exposure to daffodils can be life-threatening, making swift veterinary intervention imperative.

What Month do Daffodils Flower?

Daffodils typically bloom in the late winter to early spring months. Depending on where you live, they may start to flower as early as February or as late as April.

Can you Leave Daffodil Bulbs in the Ground All Year?

Yes, you can leave daffodil bulbs in the ground all year. In fact, leaving them in the ground is the best option for daffodil bulbs as it allows them to receive the necessary nutrients and moisture for optimal growth.

However, it is important to keep in mind that daffodil bulbs are susceptible to disease and pests, so it is a good idea to clean up any dead foliage from the previous year to reduce the risk of infestation.

Additionally, it is recommended to divide and replant the bulbs every few years to keep them healthy and to ensure that they continue to bloom.

type of daffodil

Final Thoughts

As we come to a close, it’s time to contemplate the delightful charm that daffodils bring to our gardens and flower beds. These radiant blooms offer a captivating burst of color to the outdoor vista during the lively spring months, leaving a lasting impression on all who behold them.

The consistency and longevity of daffodil blooms make them a coveted commodity among discerning gardeners. With their ability to thrive in diverse soil conditions and weather patterns, it’s no wonder that daffodils are a popular choice for adding a touch of allure to one’s garden.

The optimal period for planting daffodil bulbs is during the crisp autumn months, providing the ideal conditions for their magnificent display come spring.

So, why not elevate the aesthetic of your garden and imbue it with a touch of sophistication by incorporating these magnificent spring bulbs into your landscape this year?

The outcome will undoubtedly be a breathtaking display of beauty and glory that will be treasured for seasons to come.

Guide To Growing The Perfect Broccoli

One of the most nutritional vegetables you could grow, this sun-loving, cool season vegetable is a vitamin powerhouse, filled with fiber, antioxidants and loads of vitamin C. Your mother was right- there is a good reason to eat your broccoli! You should certainly consider growing broccoli in your fall garden.

This stout, flowering, thick-stemmed vegetable is related to cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts and kale. All of which are in the Brassica Oleracea plant species. The central head is eaten before it flowers, when it resembles a small tree, but the rest of the vegetable is entirely edible too, a fact that most people don’t know. Broccoli is a moderately long-growing vegetable, but don’t let that deter you!  If you give this vegetable the right conditions and time your planting correctly, you can get this plant to produce new secondary heads for weeks even after you’ve harvested the main flowering head.

One of the great things about this vegetable is that you can grow it almost everywhere and we’re going to tell you how.

Let’s dive in and get growing!

Is Broccoli hard to grow?

1. Planting Broccoli

Broccoli loves sunlight and needs to be planted in a site that gets at least 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight a day. Broccoli is a cool-season plant, so the timing is key to getting your broccoli to produce properly. Broccoli is best in your cool season garden, so planning your seeds around the temperature is key. Depending on when you want to harvest your broccoli, and of course which growing zone you live in, you should plant your broccoli seeds in the fall or late winter. The soil temperature should be about 75 degrees when you plant your seeds. That might mean that you need to start the seeds indoors. The most common time to grow broccoli plants is sometime in the fall so you harvest broccoli in the winter. Once established, broccoli will grow in even near freezing temperatures.

Starting your own seeds can be rewarding, but time consuming or space dependent, so if you prefer to pick up seedlings at your local nursery to plant in your garden that would work just as well.

Starting Your Seeds

If you’re doing a spring planting, broccoli can be started indoors about 6 to 8 weeks before your last frost date or you can sow broccoli seeds outdoors 2 to 3 weeks before your last frost date if your soil is workable enough. If starting indoors, sow seeds 1/4 to 1/2 deep in a high-quality seed-starting mix or peat pellets. You should see the germination of your broccoli seeds in about 4 to 7 days.

For a fall planting, you can direct sow outdoors around 85 to 100 days (which about how long broccoli takes to full mature) before the temperatures in your zone start to hit freezing. In zone 9b, central Florida that means I have all the way up until February. If you are in zone 6, where I am originally from, that means you want to be harvesting in December. With broccoli, it’s key to get it have it mature before the summer heat. Once it starts getting above 75 degrees on a regular basis, the buds begin to open and yellow petals appear. This will cause the broccoli to become bitter, so make sure you plant accordingly. If you are wanting to keep seeds, then this is the beginning of the process of getting seeds, but certainly not if you want to eat them.

It’s important to harden your plants off before transplanting in your garden, so make sure that you gradually expose your seedlings to the outdoors for a couple hours a day for at least a week during the day. Never leave your seedlings out at night since the potential for frost and frigid temperatures can damage your seedlings.

Space broccoli plants 12" - 24" apart

Where To Grow Broccoli

Broccoli can be grown in Zones 2 to 11. As mentioned above, broccoli grows well cool weather, so be mindful when you’re planting your seedlings to take into account. It is best that your broccoli mature during cooler temperatures. Refer to the growing instructions for your particular variety for your maturing dates.

When To Plant Broccoli

Broccoli does not generally do well in hot weather. While there some varieties with higher heat tolerance being developed on the market, it is still recommended to plant your crops in the early spring, for an early summer crop before the temperature warms up, or planting in the fall for a early winter harvest. Here are a few timing options:

  • Growing Zone 6 plant in early September
  • Growing Zone 7 plant in early October
  • Growing Zone 8 plant in October-November
  • Growing Zone 9 plant in early November

Prepping Your Planting Site

Amending your soil before you plant is always a great practice before you plant new plants, and you’ll want to give your vegetables all of the extra nutrients they can get. As the soil in your garden is exposed to heat and rain the organic matter breaks down. Obviously growing vegetables will also hasten this. If you grow in a garden bed, this becomes very apparent as the amount of soil seems to drop. This means each year you will need to add nutrient rich soil to your vegetable garden. You can also make your own compost, which sounds easier than it actually is, and add that as well. A bit of caution though, when you add new soil and compost, then mix it in, the soil composition will change. Which is a good reason to buy a 4 in one soil tester. Adding organic matter and other nutrients is needed, but can throw your soil out of balance. Test and amend your soil before planting. If you have added rich loamy soil or compost, it might mean waiting a few weeks fro some of the organic matter to break down.

Once the plants start growing, you can side dress them with organic fertilizer“>vegetable organic fertilizer to ensure they continue to get the nutrients they need. Just forking in a few inches around the base of the plant will do. Broccoli prefers a neutral to slightly acidic soil for best growing results. Using a soil ph tester, an investment I highly recommend, you want to get the soil ph to between 6-6.8.

Planting Broccoli Seedlings & Seeds

When your broccoli seedlings are ready to plant, usually determined when the seedlings have 4 or 5 true leaves and are around 4 to 6 weeks old. Transplant them into your garden at around 12 to 18 inches apart and in holes a bit deeper than the container depth they were in. Broccoli needs a good amount of space to flourish, so make sure you give your broccoli plenty of room to grow to develop. Space your rows around 24″ to 36″ inches apart. Water the plants right after you have planted them.

It’s a good practice to protect your young seedlings when you first plant them in the garden. Cloches or row covers are a good idea to protect from wind, hail rodents, or pests until your plants are more established.

You can also direct sow your broccoli. This is my preferred method and works just fine in my growing zone. Sowing indoors and transplanting will be the better route to take in northern zones 6 & 7 if you want to harvest your broccoli before late summer. When direct sowing, place a couple seeds in each hole 1/2″ deep and only 4 inches apart from one another. As they grow, I will thin them out to 12″ and transplant the best ones in the middle to plant them in other areas of my vegetable garden or place these in containers.

Growing Broccoli In Containers

Broccoli is a container-friendly vegetable to grow if you don’t have enough space in your garden or if you have poor soil conditions, you just need to make sure you have a decent sized container for it to grow. Broccoli can get pretty big. I like to use containers that are at least 12″ wide at the top and at least 12″ deep. That will usually mean you are looking at 7 – 10 gallon containers. If taken care of these will last you years, so even if you have to buy them new, they are a good investment. While black containers are probably the most common, if you can find a container with a lighter color I would buy that. Black containers will absorb heat, sometimes that can be an issue. Plant a couple seedlings per container but be prepared to cull one when the seedlings emerge.

One of the great things about container growing is the level of control you have both in the soil and sunshine it gets. I would mix in some well rotted manure in each container when you get started. When your broccoli is starting out place the container in a shady place, limiting the amount of sunshine to only a few hours of direct sun a day. As the broccoli plant grows gradually move into a spot with full sun.

Make sure to water frequently and fertilize with a slow release organic fertilizer at around half way through the growing process. Depending on the variety of broccoli that will be between 45-55 days. Then again as the center broccoli head forms.

Broccoli Microgreens

Due to its superfood qualities, broccoli is a very popular vegetable used to grow microgreens. This method of cultivation produces dense, highly concentrated baby greens that contain high levels of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. While popular with chefs and found at your local farmer’s markets, it’s quite easy to grow your own microgreens at home.

Grab a shallow seed tray and fill a bit over 3/4 full. Then drop your seedlings in, leaving a small amount of room for soil to be placed over the seeds. Sow seeds generously, they should seem crowded at only 1/4 inch apart and then cover very lightly with soil. Keep the soil warm-at room temperature or just above and once your seeds begin to sprout move them under your grow lights for about 10 hours of light a day. Pay close attention to soil moisture. I would suggest using a water bottle to lightly spray your microgreens daily as the light will dry them out.

Microgreens only take about 10 to 20 days to grow to the desired size, just after the true leaves start to develop. Harvest your shoots with a sharp knife or good quality scissors. They will last refrigerated for up to 10 days.

Brassica oleracea var

2. How To Grow And Care For Your Broccoli

Broccoli likes a rich, moist, fertile soil in order to grow well, a good amount of sunshine and most importantly- cool weather! The key to a good harvest is providing the right conditions to get it to proliferate and grow large for you to enjoy.


Make sure you water your broccoli regularly to keep the soil moist, but never soggy. So don’t overwater and leave your broccoli plants in a puddle, they can develope root rot especially when they are young plants. Overwatering your broccoli will also encourage pests and fungus.

If you live in a drier growing zone or if you know you won’t be able to water regularly, using an organic mulch can help with water retention. As a side benefit it will also help to control weed overgrowth. Another technique is to use a soaker hose. Run the hose along the plant’s base, this will encourage even water distribution and prevent soil erosion. When a head starts to develop, try your best to not water the head, as this can promote rot.


When you plant your seedlings at the beginning of the growing season, it is recommended to fertilize your broccoli when the plants reach around 6 to 8 inches in height and again at around 12 inches. After that, you can give your plants a nutrient boost every 4 weeks or so. A low-nitrogen fertilizer, fish emulsion or any other type of well balanced slow release organic fertilizer is ideal. As stated prior I use a combination of well rotten manure to start and a couple applications of organic fertilizer both mid way and towards the end. Do whatever brings you the most success, but make the choice to stay away from chemical fertilizers for a variety or reasons. There are just so many options that are easy and inexpensive today that they are just not needed.

Cold Conditions

Did we mention that broccoli loves the cold! These plants thrive in temperatures as low as 40 degrees when mature. That would mean starting in early fall and harvesting at the beginning of winter. This is probably the most common time to grow broccoli, but this versatile plant can also be grown in early spring for an early summer crop. They are not very heat tolerant so be sure to plant erly enough in the spring so that by the time temperatures are above 75 degrees Fahrenheit (21 degrees Celsius) you will be harvesting. If planting in the fall and you live in an area that gets below 30 degrees you may want to use row covers to protect your broccoli from colder evenings when the seasons begin to change.

If you want to promote an earlier harvest in the spring or a later harvest in the fall, you can utilize polytunnels or mini hoop tunnels to extend your growing season.


Mulching around broccoli plants will help keep soil temperatures lower and provide weed protection. Broccoli roots are quite shallow, so adding mulch will provide some protection. It will also aid in maintaining a moist soil for you broccoli to grow in.

Excessive Heat

If you’re experiencing a heat wave and your broccoli plant can potentially bolt due to the temperatures, add some shade cloth to your plants to provide some protection against the heat and water often. Both will help prevent your broccoli from bolting.

Pruning Broccoli

Broccoli plants grow to produce a large, main head at the top of its main stalk and also produce smaller side shoots off of its main stalk. There are a few different ways you can prune broccoli and it will depend on what kind of harvest you want.

If you want numerous smaller, side shoots of the buds, then your best bet is to pinch off the main head about a month or so after you transplanted your seedling. This will promote the growth of several side shoots instead of one large, main flowering head.

Conversely, if you want a large main broccoli head, pinching off all of the side shoots will force all of the plants’ energy to go to producing the main head and not get diverted to producing small off-shoots.

Loose Broccoli Heads

Sometimes broccoli can produce loose, bitter heads that are less than savory to eat. Most commonly this is caused by too much heat. If you live in an area that experiences a spike in temperature, or if you planted your broccoli too late or in a spot that gets too warm, your broccoli could flower or bolt. Then you will have bitter, flavorless broccoli and your work will have been for nothing. If you prefer spring plantings this will always be an issue, timing will key in your success.

But what if it’s not the heat? Well, then it could be too much nitrogen in the soil as too much of this nutrient can cause swift growth of the head of the broccoli. Make sure you are mindful of the fertilizer you are using to avoid this problem in the first place. Which is another reason I always recommend using slow release fertilizers.  

3. Broccoli Heirloom Varieties

Broccoli is a member of the Brassicaceae family, commonly known as the group of cruciferous vegetables. These Brassica-type plants are a large group of vegetables whose members include cabbage, cauliflower, kale, collard greens, kohlrabi, kai-lan and Brussel sprouts. These vegetables are native to western and southern Europe, thriving in cooler and harsher growing conditions. 


Many hybrid types have been developed over the years, but nothing beats the tried and true flavors of the classic heirloom varieties. The following are the common broccoli varieties.

Calabrese Broccoli: This is the most familiar type of broccoli, with large green or bluish-green heads and thick stalks. This variety is named after the Calabria region in Italy.

Sprouting Broccoli: As the name suggests, this type of broccoli is generally smaller with many heads, which can range in size and color. This type of broccoli reaches maturity in roughly 70 to 100 days.

Early Season Broccoli: These broccoli types can be good to harvest in less than 60 days and are ideal if you want a fast crop. They are typically more tender in taste and tend to develop smaller main heads.

Mid-Season Broccoli: Mid-season broccoli types take around 70-80 days to mature and do well in a bit warmer temperature. But not too warm! variety is typically on the larger size, around 4 to 8 inches, since it has a longer growing season than the Early Season Broccoli types.

Romanesco: This visually appealing, usually pale green in color broccoli produces unique spiral-like florets. Very sensitive to heat and has a bit of a nutty flavor. Somewhere between a broccoli and a cauliflower, this vegetable is a popular heirloom vegetable to grow.

Below are some heirloom varieties that would be a welcome addition to your garden:

Calabrese Green Sprouting Broccoli: This broccoli is an Italian heirloom variety and produces many side shoots, so perfect if you want a continuing harvest throughout the season. Matures in around 90 days.

Early Purple Sprouting Broccoli: This is a fast producing, purple bud variety that matures in as little as 60 days. This type is suitable for warmer temperatures.

Waltham 29: A dark, bluish-green coloured broccoli that is also popular for growing microgreens. This type matures in around 50 to 70 days.

Di Ciccio: Another Italian heirloom variety, this is a strong tasting emerald-green broccoli that is great at producing side shoots and matures in about 70 days to a size of 3 to 5 inches wide.

Yod Fah Chinese Broccoli: This sprouting-style broccoli matures in about 55 days and is tender and sweet. The stalks and leaves are sweet and delicious, so no part of this vegetable goes to waste.

Romanesco Italia Cauliflower: This apple-green broccoli matures in about 75 to 95 days

4. Common Insects & Ailments

As with most plants, there are many broccoli pests and insects you must contend with to keep your vegetables healthy and infection-free.  With a little planning and proper maintenance, you can minimize the damage and in the best case, avoid any issues entirely. One thing of note that many gardeners don’t often consider, start your garden away from other heavy vegetation. You will invite pests into your garden with these near. If it is a difficult thing to do, then slowly try and substitute in and around the vegetation known plants that deter insects, and/or flowers & plants that invite insects that eat harmful pests.

Cabbage Worms

The larvae of moths and butterflies, these pests feed on the foliage of plants and if not treated properly can eat up your plants! If you notice gray or white moths flying around your broccoli take heed and stop them from laying their eggs in the first place. Handpicking the eggs or spraying with insecticides containing Bacillus thuringiensis or spinosad every 1 to 2 weeks can help control the outbreak. Insect barrier or row covers can help to deter them and should be placed almost immediately after planting.


Aphids are tiny insects that will feed on the undersides of broccoli leaves, causing them to become discolored and wrinkled.

Neem oil or other horticultural oils (make sure you read the packaging before applying the oil to your tulips) is an effective method at getting rid of aphids. You could also apply a mixture of water and a couple drops of dish soap to a cloth or spray bottle and gently wipe or spray the infected area (apply every 2-3 days for a couple of weeks for best results). Sometimes simply spraying the aphids with cold water will dislodge them and prevent them from returning. Diatomaceous earth, an organic powdery compound, can be used successfully against an aphid infestation by simply sprinkling it over the plants.

Beneficial insects will compete with aphids and keep their population at bay, so it might not be a bad idea to plant a beneficial pollinator flower mixture in the area to help deter these pests if they are a recurring issue.

Flea Beetles 

Flea beetles are tiny insects that leave holes in the foliage of broccoli plants and if you’re not proactive, these pests can kill your seedlings and damage the harvest from your crop. It is a good idea to use an insecticide and follow the directions on the label. You do not want these insects! Flea beetles are pesky and can overwinter in the soil, so cleaning up your beds at the end of every season is good practice at preventing these insects from coming back year after year.


Cutworms will eat your newly planted seedlings. It’s a good idea to plant strong seedlings instead of sowing seeds directly and if the problems persist, protect the stem of your broccoli by wrapping it (very delicately!) with cardboard or cloth, so they can’t get to the stem and cut it down. If problems persist, you may have to treat with an insecticidal spray. 

Cabbage Root Maggots

A notorious pest that infests plants within the cabbage family, including broccoli, pose a significant threat to your vegetables. These tiny yet destructive insects belong to the fly family and primarily target the roots of brassica crops. The life cycle of Cabbage Root Maggots begins as adults lay their eggs in the soil near susceptible plants during early spring. Prevention is the best cure. Between plantings you want to plow your garden, this will kill or minimize them staying over winter. However if you do have them digging up your plants and removing the root maggots from the roots is one of the best options. You can do that by dumping the roots in a bucket of water to drown them. Pyrethrin spray is another option but you still need to get at the roots.

Common Broccoli Diseases

Common issues when growing broccoli include bacterial and fungal diseases. A number of leaf spot diseases infect broccoli plants, and it is a good practice to rotate your brassica crops every year. To avoid fungal growth, always monitor your watering schedule and make sure you are not overwatering your plants, as fungus thrives in damp, wet conditions. Proper spacing when planting will help promote good air flow and circulation, and always water the base of the plant, avoiding the leaves or head of the broccoli to keep them as dry. 

If you go to check on your broccoli and notice a white, powdery-like, dusty-looking substance on your broccoli leaves you most likely have a case of powdery mildew. This type of fungus will attack the leaves first and gradually make its way to the stems and then the head. To avoid this, you must make sure your plants are getting enough sunlight, good air circulation (prune some leaves if necessary) and keep the plants as dry as possible (with adequate, but not too much water)

If you have an outbreak that you just can’t control, dispose of infected plants immediately to avoid further spread to other crops in your garden. Practicing good garden maintenance at the end of every season- cleaning debris is most important- this will also prevent the chance of insect or bacterial/fungal outbreaks in the following year.

5. Harvesting Broccoli

fall plantings of broccoli

Typically harvested in the early winter, the immature flower buds of the broccoli are what you want to harvest once its fully developed, before the flowering buds open up that turn into tiny, yellow flowers. If you notice them flowering, harvest immediately to avoid the bitter taste that normally accompanies a vegetable that bolts (sometimes, even if you catch it quick, you might miss the small window of when it turns bitter). You should harvest the head of your broccoli when it reaches its mature size, generally in the 4 to 6 inches range. The size can vary, so make sure you refer to your seed package for specific information about your variety.

Use a sharp knife when you harvest broccoli off of the main stem and if you aren’t planting anything in that garden spot right away, leave the plant there to form more side shoots. The side shoots will be smaller, but these are still quite delicious and can prolong your broccoli harvest. Adding a dose of a good quality, balanced fertilizer will encourage the side shoots to continue developing.

I mentioned in the very beginning the dark green leaves of the broccoli plant are also editable. This is not an oddity, the Italians, and other mediterranean countries have been eating broccoli leaves for centuries. There is even a specific variety of broccoli that is grown specifically for its leaves. Broccoli being of the brassica oleracea species, share the same traits. So broccoli leaves would be eaten just as their cousins; mustard greens, collard greens, kale, and others in the same family.


Fresh broccoli can be stored in the fridge for up to two weeks, but the longer it’s in the refrigerator, the tougher the stems become, and you begin to loose nutrients. As with most fruits and vegetables-fresh is best! Give it a good wash before you go to eat it.

But what do you do after you’ve reaped your massive broccoli harvest and can’t eat it all within two weeks? What will you do with all of your crop? Luckily, there are ways to save and store broccoli over the winter.


Freezing is a great and easy method to preserve your broccoli harvest for the winter months. Freezing allows for the best preservation of the flavor, color and nutrients in your harvest and if you have ample space (freezer space) to store frozen vegetables, this method is for you. And it’s pretty easy! 

First, give your broccoli a good wash with warm water. You can even fill up your sink with warm water and add a little bit of white vinegar to it, soaking the broccoli until any or all of the insects come out of the florets. There are a lot of places for insects to hide in broccoli heads, so make sure you wash them thoroughly. Soak for 15 minutes before drying the florets on a dish towel.

Chop up your broccoli into bite sized florets and cut the stem down to your liking. Next, blanch these in boiling water for around 3 minutes and then place them in an ice bath for the same amount of time to stop the cooking process. Blanching is a great method that allows your broccoli to maintain its color, texture, and nutritional value. Once it’s done in the ice bath, dry the florets out and lay them flat on a baking sheet. Place this sheet in the freezer and this helps the florets from sticking together and freezing evenly. It’s easier when it’s frozen this way, otherwise if you freeze them in a clump, they can be a pain to separate if you just want a handful for a recipe for later.

Once they are sufficiently frozen, add them to freezer bags and write the date on them. Frozen broccoli can last up to 6 months in the freezer. 

Seed Saving

If you allow a broccoli plant or two to bolt, rather than harvesting the head of the broccoli, then you can save your seeds for next year. Once the small yellow flowers open up, they can be pollinated, which can result in the production of many, many seeds that you can store.

Broccoli seeds are very small, so when you go to collect them, it would be a good idea to collect them in a tray. Break the pods off of the stalks and then give them a shake over the tray, then break the pods open with your fingers to get to the seeds inside.

Once you’ve collected your seeds, dry your seeds out for a week or two before placing them in a cool, dark place for the winter. Seeds typically can last up to a couple of years if they are heirloom seeds.If you want to see if your seeds germinate, it may be a good idea to try to sprout them in a damp paper towel before you decide to plant them in your garden, just in case they don’t germinate, and you need to find other, viable seeds.

If you collect and save your seeds every year, you can guarantee that your seeds weren’t treated with pesticides and chemicals, which is a good thing if you’re aiming for a more organic approach to vegetable gardening. You can even go to a local seed swap and trade your seeds for some other heirloom and organic seeds from your neighbors. Another option is to join the Seed Savers Exchange where you can list your seeds for others to enjoy & request seeds from other gardeners.

growing broccoli

6. Companion Planting

Companion planting is a great practice to add to your gardening. A combination of folklore and science, there are particular fruits, herbs and vegetables that will work to help deter pests from your broccoli and allow your harvest to thrive. On the flipside, there are certain types of plants that you should avoid planting near your broccoli. You can learn quite a bit of what works and what doesn’t through experimentation, but the ones discussed here are tried and tested companions that will be beneficial (or not) when you plant your garden.

Good Companions


Beets are a good companion plant to broccoli because while broccoli is a heavy-feeder in terms of calcium and beets don’t need much calcium at all, so there won’t be any nutrient competition. Just make sure you give each plant the proper amount of growing room!


Chamomile is great at attracting pollinators to your garden and will do great beside your broccoli. 


While not necessarily beneficial to your broccoli, lettuce can be planted beside your broccoli in the summer months, when the summer heat tends to bolt or scorch your lettuce leaves. The shade that bigger broccoli leaves can provide, will be a nice, shady cover for some summer lettuce crops that would otherwise not flourish.


Potatoes and broccoli are both heavy-feeders, so it can be tricky when you pick a plant to go alongside both of these vegetables, but the good thing is that these both don’t want what the other needs! Broccoli loves calcium and nitrogen, while potatoes need more magnesium and phosphate, so these two can be planted together- just so long as you have the space.  


Planting your broccoli near rhubarb will help deter the cabbage whitefly that can plague your broccoli leaves, but if you don’t eat the leaves (but you can and should!) then this won’t be too big of an issue. Rhubarb leaves can get huge- so be mindful when you plant your broccoli to avoid overcrowding.


Rosemary repels many pests- so planting this herb near your broccoli is highly recommended! Cabbage moths and cabbage loopers don’t like rosemary, and as an added bonus, if you sprinkle some of the herbs’ leaves on the ground around your broccoli plants, its spiky leaves will deter slugs and snails. Win, win!

Companions To Avoid

It’s best to not plant other brassica family members alongside your broccoli, as this will lead to similar nutrient competition and attract the same pests. Rule of thumb is to plant them as far as you can from each other in your garden.

Some say to avoid planting strawberries, corn, tomatoes, peppers, and squash alongside broccoli, since these plants are heavy feeders, and they’ll fight each other for nutrients.

7. Cooking & Eating Broccoli

Broccoli is a diverse vegetable. Eaten raw, steamed, blanched, even deep-fried or in a smoothie! You are only limited by your creativity and imagination when it comes to preparing broccoli.  A quick blanch, a slow roast tossed with your favorite seasonings in the oven, or even barbecued on the grill, broccoli is an easy to cook vegetable that is chalked full of nutritional value. 

While the florets are most commonly eaten, you can most definitely eat the stalks and leaves of the broccoli too.

The stalk can be just as tender as the florets and can be chopped up and diced can be used just like you would use broccoli, in soups, or stews and stir-fries. Many suggest peeling the outer rind off of the stalk first, since it can be a bit woodsy tasting, but that will depend on your personal preference. Broccoli stalks are great chopped up fine in salads and coleslaws- the added crunch gives you a nice texture contrast with other vegetables. You can even peel the stalk with a vegetable peeler or a spiralizer, to use it in raw dishes or as a noodle alternative. Broccoli rice has become popular, where the stalk is pulsed in a food processor to resemble a rice-like consistency and eaten either raw or sautéed.

The leaves can be chopped and added to a salad. They are a little bitter, but less so than collard or mustard greens. They can be sauteed much like you would with kale or collards.

Broccoli microgreens can be added to any salad, sandwich or wrap to add a densely nutritional kick to your meal. You could even juice these microgreens and add it to your favourite homemade juice for an added nutritional boost.

Is flowering broccoli safe to eat?

One common question is, can you eat the bright yellow flowers on the heads of broccoli? The simple answer is of course you can eat broccoli flowers. When a plant flowers, it means that it has gone through the process of self-pollination. This happens when the plant’s male and female reproductive organs mature at the same time and the plant transfers pollen from the male organ to the female organ. Self-pollination can occur in both hybrid and non-hybrid plants.

In general, self-pollinated plants are more likely to produce offspring that are genetically similar to the parent plant. This is because there is less genetic diversity in self-pollinated plants than in hybrid plants. Hybrid plants have genes from two different parent plants, which results in more genetic diversity.

So, what does this mean for you? If you’re eating flowering broccoli from your garden, it’s likely that the plant is a self-pollinated plant. This means that the broccoli you’re eating is genetically similar to the parent plant. However, it’s important to remember that every plant is different, so there is no guarantee that all self-pollinated plants will be safe to eat.

A Final Note

Broccoli is a nutritious, popular vegetable to add to your garden. If you have the space, the proper soil conditions, and plant along with the cooler temperatures, this vegetable will thrive in your garden. Starting your own seeds or growing seedlings can be rewarding in its own right and amending your garden beds to meet the needs of your plants will get them off to a great start. Be mindful of watering (and most importantly, over-watering) to avoid common pests or ailments in the future.

Choosing an heirloom type of broccoli will add a uniqueness to your garden and give you a better chance of having viable seeds for the next seasons if you choose to save your broccoli seeds. 

Cooking and storing broccoli are diverse and easy, making this vegetable a must-have in your kitchen.